Faculty Advisor(s)

Karen Klimas



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Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a rare condition found in identical twins in which the fetuses share a placenta. It is diagnosed between 16-24 weeks of gestation using ultrasound imaging and the Quintero staging system. The Quintero staging system includes 5 stages, which are categorized by sonographic findings to include abnormal Doppler findings, amount of amniotic fluid, as well as determining which twin is the recipient and which is the donor. The last stage determines if fetal demise in one or both twins has occurred. Dr. Quintero’s staging system has led to an agreement on the condition of the fetuses, as well as the development of treatment and/or management options that are available at each stage. Treatment options include fetoscopic laser coagulation and amnioreduction. TTTS affects 10-15% of monochorionic pregnancies and has a greater than 90% mortality rate when left untreated.

Publication Date


Document Type



Medical Imaging


ultrasound, Quintero staging, twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, identical twins, monochorionic pregnancies, fetoscopic laser coagulation


Medicine and Health Sciences

Staging of Twin-To-Twin Transfusion Syndrome Using Ultrasound



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