Whether water boils faster with salt is perhaps a never-ending question. My study has addressed this topic from a statistical perspective. Additionally, I have also investigated whether the water quantity affects the boiling time. I used the two-way Analysis of variance (ANOVA) to analyze and interpret the data.
Breast density refers to the amount of fibrous and glandular tissue in comparison to fatty tissue demonstrated on a mammogram. A woman’s breast density is significant because as the density of the tissue increases, the woman’s risk for developing breast cancer increases and the more challenging for microcalcifications or lesions to be seen on mammography images. The Mammography Quality Standards Act, requires radiologists or imaging facilities to send each patient a written summary of their mammogram report and communicate to the patient if their results suggest further imaging. In addition to this requirement, 38 states that have passed a Breast Density Notification Law the summary must also include the patient’s breast density category. Through literature review, the significance of breast density and the role of imaging aids in creating awareness to the public. Breast density is categorized using the criteria established by the American College of Radiology. Having the patient receive the information on the density of their breast tissue, creates awareness and promotes communication with their referring physician on the need for any follow-up imaging or clinical management. Through advancements in technology for mammography and sonography, the combination of imaging improves sensitivity for detection of masses amidst the dense tissue.
Keywords: breast density, breast density notification legislature, mammography, breast sonography
Radiation therapy is an ever-changing field, making it easier and safer to treat a broader range of cancers. With the advancement of the CyberKnife System, we can now investigate how effective stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) treatments are in terms of treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. HCC is the most common liver cancer as well as one of the most prominent cancer-related deaths in the world. Several studies indicated that, previously, treating HCC with ionizing radiation was not an effective option due to the liver’s sensitivity to radiation, among other factors. After conducting research and examining nine different sources, there seems to be a common theme with patients who have started treatment with CyberKnife SBRT. Studies show a high percentage of in-field recurrence free rates after one and two years, as well as encouraging overall survival rates. In some studies, results also showed higher local control rates and lower toxicity reaction rates. CyberKnife SBRT can be used to treat patients
Malpractice has positively changed nursing practice by placing responsibility and accountability on the nurses in order to protect the patients and make nurses more aware of their shortcomings.
Nurses should advocate for people around the world to have clean water and sanitation because they are essential for good health.
Radiation therapy is utilized to treat tumor cells with high-dose radiation. When the severity of the cancer progresses, the goal of radiation therapy becomes relief of symptoms. This is referred to as palliative radiotherapy. Palliative radiotherapy can be futile if not administered efficiently. There is a recurring question of how to achieve optimal palliative radiotherapy for patients. This research evaluates the most effective factors to optimize treatment, such as proper patient selection and effective timing. A guideline for treatment selection based upon patient performance status, severity of symptoms, progression of cancer, and metastasis of cancer is formed. The sooner a diagnosis can be made, the increased chance palliative radiotherapy will improve quality of life. The stage of the cancer should determine fractionization. The more advanced the stage, the more the tumor is affecting normal cell development. If a quicker body response to radiation therapy is needed, higher doses with single or limited fractions should be administered.
This research offers a comparison of two types of computed tomography (CT) configurations by exploring each scanner type and the accompanying image specifications, protocols, radiation doses, geometric aspects, and photographic aspects of the resulting images. The comparison aimed to determine if single-energy CT (SECT) or dual-energy CT (DECT) had any clear advantages over the other scanner type. Several studies in the research resulted in DECT displaying a decrease in dose without compromising contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). The studies in this research also showed DECT had a superior ability of decreasing iodine by 70% concentration dose while obtaining the same image quality as SECT at normal iodine dose. This research provides the reasoning that DECT is highly sought after for its abilities of dose reduction, metal reduction, improved iodine quantification, spectral separation, and temporal resolution. While DECT is far more expensive in a department than SECT, the research implicates it is more desirable for patients with prostheses, poor renal function, pediatrics, low dose lung studies, and any patient in need of a cardiac study. Further research should be performed on DECT due to its newness in the field of CT and more advancements that could additionally benefit patients and the technologists who utilize it.
Keywords: Computed tomography, comparative study, iodine, diagnostic imaging, single-energy computed tomography, dual-energy computed tomography
Green Chemistry: The Oxidation of Benzaldehyde Using Atmospheric Oxygen and N-heterocyclic Carbenes as Catalysts
Alex Brody and John Morgan
Oxidation is a vital process in organic and biochemical reactions. In particular, the oxidation of aromatic aldehydes to carboxylic acids and esters is a vital process used in many different environments. Benzaldehyde is one common subject of this type of reaction, used in the synthesis of benzoic acid and benzoate derivatives. Unfortunately, the industrial synthesis of these compounds uses harmful heavy metal oxidants such as Chromium(VI) and Manganese(VII), which are very harmful to the environment. We proposed to eliminate these pollutants by using atmospheric oxygen and an organic catalyst in a solvent free reaction. This reaction would then be microwaved in a household microwave for 5 to 15 minutes in order to reduce the reaction time. Thus, we plan to eliminate both solvent and heavy metal waste, as well as significantly reduce reaction time, and drop overall costs. We succeeded in validating our method by getting a thirty percent yield of benzoic acid.
Bringing healthcare workers to the streets to assist the homeless population is an integral part of the healthcare system as a whole.
Joseph Cassaro III, Gerald Struble, Trevor George, and Robert Wozniak
Background: Previous studies have shown that the Slumped-Forward Head posture is associated with decreased glenohumeral external rotator strength, while an erect posture has been associated with positive changes in strength. Clinically, it has been observed that similar changes in hip abductor strength occur in response to various sitting postures.
Purpose: The purpose of this study is two-fold, first to determine the impact sitting posture has on lower extremity hip abductor strength, and second, determine if those who demonstrate a ≥10% strength decline from “erect-sitting” to “slumped-siting” also demonstrate a decline in functional hip strength as measured by the Y-balance test. Given the unforeseen events of the Covid-19 pandemic, the second phase of this research is now a proposal study, a form in which it should be completed in the future.
Methods: Fifty subjects ages 18-26 participated in this study. Each subject was placed in four postures for five minutes. Said postures were prone, erect-sitting, prone, and slumped-sitting, after which dominant leg hip abductor strength was measured with the subject in side-lying and their dominant leg up, with their non-dominant leg maintained at thirty degrees of hip and knee flexion. Measurements were recorded utilizing the Micro-FET3 Hand Held Muscle Testing Dynamometer (HHMTD). Subjects who demonstrated a ≥10 decline in strength from erect-sitting to slumped-sitting posture were assessed again for part two of the study at a later date. Part two of the study required subject's to assume the same postures listed above for five minutes, yet after each posture assumed, the subjects functional dominant leg hip abductor strength was measured utilizing the Y-balance test.
Results: For 28 subjects of phase one of study: 25% of the population demonstrated greater than 10% decline in hip abductor strength following five minutes in the slumped-sitting posture, who would have completed phase two data collection, which has been illustrated as a protocol.
Conclusions: The Slumped Forward Head posture has shown a negative effect on hip abductor strength.
Effects of Yoga on Mindfulness in Pediatric Patients with Oncology Diagnoses through Guardian Perspectives: A Research Protocol
Victoria Ciszak, Dana Cutler, Gabriella LaManna, and Kristen Ogonowski
Background: Yoga practice is commonly utilized by physical therapists in order to promote physical and mental health. In populations with a poorer prognosis, mindfulness and overall well-being becomes increasingly important. In particular, the pediatric cancer population requires an intervention that keeps these emotional needs in mind. Because children are physically and mentally developing throughout their oncology treatments, it is crucial that a comprehensive psychosocial treatment plan is initiated. Yoga can fill this need as it has elements that influence behavior and physical development.
Objective: The aim of this protocol paper is to determine all necessary procedures for future implementation at an institution with a pre-establish yoga program. We anticipate that by analyzing the pre and post intervention PROMIS Parent Proxies, we will discover evidence of a correlation between yoga and a decrease in negative behaviors.
Participants: Participants are eligible for this study if they are the guardian(s) of a child with an oncologic diagnosis between the ages of 5-17. Inclusion criteria comprises guardians of children who are currently undergoing treatment for a cancer diagnosis. Guardians will be excluded from this study if they are not cognitively fit to answer questions regarding their child’s program, if their child is not physically or cognitively able to participate in the yoga program, if their child is in remission and not actively receiving treatment, and if their child is already participating in the pre-existing yoga program.
Methods: In order to assess the relationship between yoga and its potential influence on a child’s behavior, we are proposing a study that would investigate how yoga would affect the behavior in children with cancer diagnoses. In order to accomplish this, researchers will analyze the guardian’s assessment of their child through the use of the PROMIS Parent Proxy Item Bank. Participants in this study will be recruited through a convenience sampling method and followed over the course of 10 yoga sessions. Parents will complete the PROMIS survey before and following the completion their yoga program. An institution must have a pre-established yoga program in order to follow this protocol. The institution may also need to seek IRB approval prior to initiation. Flyers will be placed in a waiting room of the facility to recruit participants. The guardians will express interest to a facility liaison who will give the guardians an information packet including: a letter to the guardian, informed consent form, and survey.
Clinical Relevance: This study would be important clinically because it would allow for researchers to further explore the connection between mind and body wellness in an at-risk population. By assessing how children with oncologic diagnosis handle a yoga program, we can hopefully continue to implement it as an intervention and therefore increase mental health and wellbeing.
Power Analysis on a Pilot Study of the Caloric Intake of Children Helping Prepare Meals Versus Children Not
The purpose of this analysis is to determine the sample size needed for a study that will be used to discover if there is a difference in the caloric intake of children who help with meal preparation and children who do not help with meal preparation.
Given the current global pandemic, now more than ever it is important to understand what factors lead to the best absorbency in a sponge as to stop the spread of bacteria and germs. The purpose of the experiment will be to determine the effect of the amount of time (15 seconds, 30 seconds, 45 seconds, 60 seconds, 75 seconds, and 90 seconds) and the amount of water (24 ounces, 32 ounces, and 40 ounces) on the absorbency of a sponge.
Breast imaging is an integral medical examination for both screening and diagnosis of breast disease. Through literature review and use of a case study comparing mammography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) the research illustrates the essential role of each imaging modality in differentiating breast tissue characteristics that lend to rendering a diagnosis. The case study showcases an example of mammography being the first choice of imaging with ultrasound and MRI utilized to further characterize the findings seen on mammography. For effective patient management, biopsy is required for final diagnosis of pathology with ultrasound as the preferred modality for guidance of the needle path being visualized in real time. The advantages and limitations of each imaging modality are discussed to understand why mammography is the most widely used for screening purposes over ultrasound and MRI. More correlation between imaging modalities needs to be utilized as it is essential that patients are being followed appropriately to ensure an accurate diagnosis and management occurs.
I did this experiment as my final project for my Design of Experiments class at Misericordia University. I took three liquids, water, milk, and orange juice then measured the time it took for them to boil in three different size pots. I was testing to see if there was a significant interaction between the Liquid and Pot size factors. After conducting the experiment, the results show that there was a statistically significant interaction effect between the factors.
The Effects of Medical Marijuana on Common Symptoms Seen in Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review
Kailee Crockett, Rebecca Fiorillo, Mckenzie Ruffing, Kristina Dorkoski, and Heather Fritz
Background: Due to Multiple Sclerosis (MS) being one of the most common neurological disorders in young adults, it is essential that as future health care professionals, we are educated on different types of alternative treatments. Recent research has shown that individuals with MS are open to considering medical marijuana as a treatment for common symptoms associated with this disease. This population, among others, would benefit from continued research on this topic to further prove its effectiveness for symptom relief.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to systematically review the existing literature regarding the effectiveness of medical cannabis in treating common symptoms experienced by individuals with MS.
Methods: A literature search on electronic databases was conducted in September 2019 and updated in January 2020. The search terms used were medical marijuana, cannabis, randomized controlled trial, and multiple sclerosis. The search was limited to years 2003-2020, major headings multiple sclerosis and cannabis, and peer reviewed journals. Articles were screened and hand searched.
Results: Fifteen articles met inclusion criteria and were included in this review.
Conclusions: The literature review provided evidence in supporting the use of medical marijuana to reduce common symptoms reported in patients with MS. Stronger evidence for improvements in pain and spasticity were commonly seen in the reviewed literature. Adverse effects were reported in all studies, and further follow-up studies are necessary to identify long term effects of using medical marijuana in controlling the symptoms associated with MS.
This poster takes the position that health care is a human service that should be provided by need independent of ability to pay, not a commodity to be allocated as a market good based on ability to pay.
When treating breast cancer patients with radiation therapy, it is important to find treatment techniques that reduce the dose to organs at risk without compromising the target tumor volume. Due to advances in cancer diagnosis, patients are diagnosed and treated earlier causing them to live longer. However, these patients are at greater risk for developing long-term complications from treatment, specifically cardiac toxicity and cardiac diseases. Research was evaluated regarding the best treatment position for breast cancer patients to reduce the dose to organs at risk, focusing on the dose to the heart. Every breast cancer patient varies in breast anatomy, tumor biology, tumor location, and structures being treated. Due to variation, positioning for breast cancer treatment should be determined on a patient-by-patient basis. Radiation dose to the heart should be of main concern and minimized as much as possible to reduce the chance of long-term treatment complications. Respiratory gating techniques such as deep inspiration breath-hold can be employed to further reduce radiation dose to organs at risk.
Effectiveness of Physical Exercise in Treating Depression Versus Conventional Treatments: A Systematic Review
Julianne Ferrie and Coleby Charlier
Purpose: This systematic review was done to compare the effects of physical exercise on depression versus the standard treatments most patients who are diagnosed with depression receive, which includes antidepressant medication and cognitive behavioral therapy. There is not currently a collective source that summarizes the various studies on this topic within the physical therapy world. Our article compiles relevant information that supports physical exercise as an alternative treatment for individuals who have been diagnosed with depression. We sampled randomized control studies and prospective cohort studies for data and results, and systematic reviews for supporting information. Our research will be a source that others can use to gain a broad knowledge on the topic and it can be used by many health professionals/disciplines for the application of a well rounded treatment plan for individuals who have a diagnosis of depression.
Methods: Searches were completed between September and December of 2018, as well as August and September of 2019. The databases used included eBook Collection, CINAHL Complete, MEDLINE, Academic Search Complete, PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES. A combination of search terms regarding exercise and depression were used to yield results.
Results: Fifteen articles met inclusion and exclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review. Data and findings were compiled from thirteen articles that studied participants’ response to exercise as a treatment for depression, and two systematic reviews that include information about exercise’s effects on depression. Pedro scores ranged from three to eight. Most articles used the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) and/or Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) for their data collection means.
Discussion: The results of the studies included in our research support exercise as a treatment for depression that can be just as effective as the current standard treatment. Some results showed that the use of exercise would be best used in conjunction with conventional psychotherapy methods and antidepressant medications, particularly in those individuals with major depressive disorder. Individuals with less severe forms of depression may be able to use exercise as their only form of treatment. Various types of exercise were found to be successful in reducing depressive symptoms. Aerobic exercise and stretching were both effective, and although group exercise had additional benefits, exercising alone was also beneficial. It is important for physical therapists to understand how exercise affects those with depression because any patient they are treating could have depression as a secondary diagnosis, and incorporating aerobic exercise interventions that have meaning to that individual may make them more successful. Further research should be conducted within the United States because most of the studies included in this research were performed in different countries. Most participants were middle aged, and further research should focus on younger populations, especially with the increased incidence of depression in teenagers and young adults. Additional long term studies need to be conducted in order to if it is plausible for exercise to be a prescribed method of treating depression in the future.
Conclusion: The results of all fifteen articles included in this systematic review conclude that exercise can be beneficial in the treatment of depression, whether used as a stand alone treatment or as an adjunctive treatment in those with more severe cases of depression. Further research should be conducted in order to continue to explore this topic, specifically the long term effects exercise can have on those with various types of depression.